The 65-year-old singer, writing on his blog, says his prognosis is “100% recovery” but that the diagnosis has delayed some of his plans for 2018.
He revealed the cancer – described as “two different cancers within one mass” – was discovered during a hospital stay when he was suffering from E.coli.
He wrote: “After the last seven years of amazing life, I would have never believed that my body would be invaded by another cancer.
“CANCER REALLY? I’m done. 2018 here I come!”
Rodgers was diagnosed with an aggressive form of prostate cancer in 2010, but was given the all clear three years later.
In his blog, he said he was more “relaxed” and “calm” with the diagnosis this time.
He revealed he “did a lot of gigging and a lot of flying” before returning to Brooklyn, New York, to undergo surgery on the cancer at Strong Memorial Hospital.
The singer is set to appear alongside his band Chic in central London on New Year’s Eve after performing at Glastonbury this year.